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The tip of the lead might then be placed in the nice cardiac vein or the center cardiac vein. In addition, when an anomaly of a left-sided inferior vena cava occurs, this most commonly empties into the coronary sinus. Anterior interventricular vein and different small veins emptying into the good cardiac vein. The nice cardiac vein operating in the left atrioventricular groove together with the circumflex coronary artery. View from the underside of the heart showing drainage of the right marginal, center cardiac vein, left marginal, and great cardiac vein into the coronary sinus. Subclavian Artery Vertebral artery Internal thoracic artery (internal mammary artery) Thyrocervical trunk Costocervical trunk Dorsal scapular artery Inferior Thyroid Artery. Vertebral Artery this artery is described in the head and neck section (Chapter 2). Internal Thoracic Artery (Internal Mammary Artery) this artery arises inside 2 cm of the origin of the subclavian artery. It courses ahead and downward behind the cartilages of the higher ribs and divides into the musculophrenic and superior epigastric arteries at the degree of the sixth intercostal area. Suprascapular Artery (May be a department of the Subclavian or Internal Thoracic Artery. Thyrocervical Trunk the thyrocervical trunk arises from the primary a part of the subclavian artery and gives rise to three branches. Costocervical Trunk the costocervical trunk arises from the again of the second part of the subclavian artery on the best side, however on the first part on the left aspect. Subscapular Artery (Inferior Scapular Artery) this artery is the largest department of the axillary artery. It anastomoses with the lateral thoracic, intercostal arteries and deep department of the transverse cervical artery, and provides muscles of the chest wall. Deep Cervical Artery the deep cervical artery arises typically from the costocervical trunk however may be a department of the subclavian artery. Branches Circumflex scapular artery Infrascapular artery Lateral border of the scapula (dorsal thoracic artery) Muscular branches Axillary Artery. It supplies the top of the humerus and shoulder joint and may have common origin with the posterior circumflex humeral artery. Branches Superior thoracic artery (highest) Thoracoacromial (acromiothoracic) artery Pectoral department Acromial branch Clavicular branch Deltoid department Lateral thoracic (lateral mammary branches) Subscapular artery Anterior circumflex humeral artery Posterior circumflex humeral artery Posterior Circumflex Humeral Artery. It arises from the third a part of the axillary artery and winds around the surgical neck of the humerus and distributes branches to the shoulder joint, deltoid, teres major and minor, and lengthy and lateral heads of triceps. The descending branch anastomoses with the deltoid branch of the arteria profunda brachii, the anterior circumflex humeral artery, and with the acromial branches of the suprascapular and thoracoacromial arteries. Superior Thoracic Artery (Highest Thoracic Artery or Arteria Thoracica Suprema) the superior thoracic artery is a small vessel and arises from the first a half of the axillary artery. Alar Thoracic Artery (Variation) the subscapular, circumflex humeral, and profunda brachii arteries might arise as a typical trunk. The axillary artery could divide into radial and ulnar arteries or give off the anterior interosseous artery of the forearm. The subscapular, the lateral thoracic, and pectoral arteries may be part of a typical trunk. It begins on the decrease border of the tendon of the teres major, ending 1 cm under the elbow, dividing into radial and ulnar arteries. It runs down the arm, medially to the humerus and gradually transferring to the entrance of the bone. Lateral Thoracic Artery (External Mammary or Inferior Thoracic Artery) this artery anastomoses with the inner thoracic, subscapular, and intercostal arteries and pectoral branches of the thoracoacromial artery. It begins at the degree of the neck of the radius, passing downward and medially, reaching the ulnar facet of the forearm. When it reaches the wrist, it crosses lateral to the pisiform bone and provides off a deep branch, which continues across the palm because the superficial palmar arch.
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Including familial Mediterranean fever, Muckle�Wells syndrome, familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy. B 534 Degenerative and metabolic diseases X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy reveal a beta-pleated antiparallel configuration. Primary and myeloma-associated systemic amyloidoses Cutaneous illness occurs in as a lot as 40% of sufferers with main (due to occult plasma cell dyscrasia) and myeloma-associated systemic amyloidosis. Occasional patients current with primary systemic amyloidosis and only develop multiple myeloma later. It occurs most usually on the arms (often posttraumatic) and across the eyes, when the purpura might observe proctoscopy or vomiting. Lesions are typically additionally evident in the nasolabial folds, the neck, axillae, umbilicus, anogenital area, and inside the oral cavity. Chronic paronychia, palmodigital erythematous swelling, and induration of the palms have been described. In gentle cases the changes may be restricted to the perivascular tissues, however in more intensive disease massive aggregates are normally evident. Involvement of blood vessel partitions, arrector pili muscles, skin adnexa, and subcutaneous fat (amyloid rings) is frequently present. In those circumstances related to blistering, the vesicle seems in an intradermal or much less generally subepidermal location. Clinically normal pores and skin exhibits histological proof of amyloid deposition in up to 50% of patients. Cutaneous involvement has not been acknowledged as a scientific characteristic of secondary systemic amyloidosis. Yet in a single publication it was described in eight out of 9 sufferers with amyloidosis complicating rheumatoid arthritis. Histological options histologically, biopsies from clinically normal skin reveal the presence of amyloid in blood vessel partitions, sweat glands, and arrector pili muscle. It is characterized by episodes of fever associated with pleuritis, peritonitis, and synovitis. Histological features amyloid is seen in the dermis, around adnexal constructions, surrounding elastic fibers, sometimes forming small globules, and in blood vessel walls, along with striking deposits within the dermal, subcutaneous, and serosal elastic tissue. More commonly, nevertheless, macular amyloid seems as small, 2�3 mm diameter lesions or else as confluent macular foci, which generally have superimposed micropapules. It is characterised by urticaria, deafness, conjunctivitis, and systemic amyloidosis. Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy Clinical features Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy is an autosomal dominant illness during which the deposition of amyloid happens predominantly in peripheral nerves. The amyloidoses 539 � poikiloderma-like cutaneous amyloidosis is an especially rare manifestation of localized cutaneous amyloidosis. It may be associated with photosensitivity, quick stature, and palmoplantar keratoderma. Confusion with different situations associated with poikiloderma including poikiloderma atrophicans vasculare is possible. Pathogenesis and histological features Chronic irritation to the skin has been proposed as the cause for amyloid deposition within the macular and lichenoid variants though this has never been confirmed. It has been advised that amyloid deposition in lichen amyloidosis is a consequence of scratching, as pruritus tends to be the presenting symptom even before amyloid is detected in skin biopsies. It has even been instructed that the cutaneous amyloidosis noticed in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia kind 2a is secondary to notalgia paresthetica (see below). When particular stains fail to demonstrate the presence of amyloid, ultrastructural research are often successful in detecting the presence of the protein. In earlier literature it was postulated that the amyloid might have been derived from mast cells or fibroblasts. B epidermal keratin within the deposits in both macular and lichenoid forms utilizing monoclonal immunocytochemistry.
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T three Veins of the Head and Neck he superficial veins of the pinnacle and neck vary in quantity and position. External Veins of the Head and Face Supratrochlear Vein the supratrochlear vein originates in the anterior a part of the head resulting from the junction of a scalp venous network, which is linked to the tributaries of the frontal superficial temporal vein. The supratrochlear veins diverge laterally and form the facial vein near the medial canthus. The main tributaries beneath the mandible are the submental, tonsillar, external palatine (peritonsillar), and submandibular veins. The vena comitans of the hypoglossal nerve and the pharyngeal and superior thyroid veins are additionally tributaries at the level below the mandible. This venous network is drained by the supratrochlear, supraorbital, posterior auricular, and occipital veins. Anterior and posterior tributaries be part of above the zygoma to type the superficial temporal vein and are joined by the middle temporal vein. The middle temporal vein joins the maxillary vein forming the retromandibular vein. Main tributaries are the parotid veins, temporomandibular joint rami, anterior auricular veins, transverse facial vein, and orbital veins. Supraorbital Vein this vein originates close to the zygomatic process of the frontal bone and runs medially above the orbit until it reaches the supratrochlear vein to kind the facial vein close to the medial canthus. A department via the supraorbital notch anastomoses with the superior ophthalmic vein. Pterygoid Venous Plexus Main tributaries are the sphenopalatine, deep temporal, pterygoid, masseteric, buccal, dental, higher palatine, and center meningeal veins, and branches from the inferior ophthalmic artery. The plexus connects with the facial vein via the deep facial vein and with the cavernous sinus through the sphenoidal emissary foramen, foramen ovale, and foramen lacerum. Facial Vein the facial vein is formed by the junction of the supratrochlear and supraorbital veins. The facial vein joins the internal jugular vein near the higher horn of the hyoid bone. The facial vein is related to the cavernous sinus by the superior ophthalmic vein. It represents the confluence of veins from the pterygoid plexus with the superficial temporal vein to type the retromandibular vein. It has an anterior branch ahead that joins the facial vein and a posterior branch backward that varieties the external jugular vein after becoming a member of the posterior auricular vein. Internal Jugular Vein the inner jugular vein drains many of the blood from the skull, brain, and superficial and deep parts of the face and neck. It originates at the jugular foramen on the cranial base, in continuation with the sigmoid sinus. The vein descends alongside the neck within the carotid sheath, reaching the subclavian vein posteriorly to the sternal end of the clavicle, thereby forming the brachiocephalic vein. At the tip, the vein is dilated at the degree of the valve and is called inferior bulb. The landmark used to find the distal portion of the internal jugular vein is the apex of the bifurcation of the 2 heads of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. The triangle shaped by the 2 heads of this muscle exposes the jugular vein for percutaneous puncture. Knowledge of this anatomic relationship is essential for internal jugular vein puncture and catheterization. The distribution of the placement of the internal jugular vein in relation to the artery is given in a clock-dial configuration and percentages proven as seen in 188 patients, who were candidates for an inside jugular puncture. Main tributaries of the interior jugular vein are the inferior petrosal sinus, and facial, lingual, pharyngeal, and superior and center thyroid veins. On the left, the thoracic duct opens near the union of the left subclavian vein and inside jugular vein. Posterior Auricular Vein the posterior auricular vein is fashioned in the parieto-occipital community and drains additionally the occipital and superficial temporal veins. It has a path of descent behind the auricle and joins the posterior division of the retromandibular vein.
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The atrioventricular portion is above the tricuspid anulus and separates the left ventricle from the best atrium. The muscular part, the most important part of the interventricular septum, is split into three portions: the inlet portion, which divides the inlet of the ventricles; the infundibular portion, which separates the outlet of the ventricles; and the trabeculated portion, located extra apically. The outlet or infundibulum of the right ventricle is proscribed anteriorly by the free anterior ventricular wall. The posterior wall is the ventriculoinfundibular fold, the muscular formation that separates the tricuspid valve from the pulmonary valve. The third wall of the infundibulum is the infundibular or outlet portion of the interventricular septum. In regular hearts, the muscular structure, which separates the tricuspid from the pulmonary valve, is identified as supraventricular crest and is fashioned in its larger part by the ventriculoinfundibular fold and a small portion of the outlet septum. These three buildings, the ventriculoinfundibular fold, the outlet septum, and the septomarginal trabecula, characterize the conventional proper ventricle. The tricuspid valve consists of an atrioventricular orifice surrounded by a fibrous ring, three considerably triangular cusps or leaflets, various kinds of chordae tendineae, and papillary muscles. The anterior cusp is the most important and is interposed between the atrioventricular ring and the infundibulum. The septal cusp is connected to the membranous portion of the interventricular septum. The papillary muscular tissues in the best ventricle are the anterior with the bottom arising from the anterolateral ventricular wall and related to the septomarginal trabecula, and the posterior, which is smaller than the anterior, arising from the inferior portion of the septum. The proper ventricular outflow tract is restricted by the supraventricular crest on the best aspect and by a half of the septomarginal trabecula on the left. The adverse shadow of the tricuspid valve lies in the best and upper contour of the best ventricle. The anterior leaflet could be visualized superiorly and to the right on the tricuspid anulus. Elongated Right Anterior Oblique View the tricuspid valve seen within the lateral view is in the posterior border and to the proper. The outflow tract is superior and to the left and is limited posteriorly by the supraventricular crest and anteriorly by the free wall of the proper ventricle. Left Atrium Anatomic Aspects the arterial blood returns from the lungs to the left coronary heart via two pulmonary veins in both sides of the left atrium. This is essentially the most dorsal chamber and is localized in front of the lumbar spine and esophagus. The left atrium has a quadrangular shape and a easy posterior wall to which the 4 pulmonary veins converge. The left appendage is a finger-like formation that communicates with the left atrium through a slender orifice. It is totally different from the right appendage, where the communication with the proper atrium is extensive and has a triangular form. Angiographic Aspects Long Axial View the best contour of the left atrium is shaped by the anterior portion of the atrial septum. Elongated Right Anterior Oblique View In this view, the most outstanding structure is the left atrial appendage, which varieties the anterior and lateral borders of the left atrium. This is an irregular and elongated finger-shaped construction that protrudes toward the left between the superior wall and the mitral valve. The entrance of the best superior pulmonary Angiographic Aspects Long Axial View In this view, the proper ventricle has a triangular form with the base at the top. The tricuspid valve is at the right and the pulmonary valve is at the left and in an higher level. The higher left border is fashioned by the anterior 296 Atlas of Vascular Anatomy vein is localized on the proper in continuation with the roof of the left atrium. Four-Chamber View this view shows an appearance similar to that described in the long axial view, but the atrial septum is visualized in its posterior portion. This 360� visualization of the pulmonary arteries can be utilized to rotate the image to quickly decide the quantity and size of vein, for example.
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It consists of multiple dilated lymphatic channels which frequently have pretty thick partitions and generally appear to extend into the overlying epidermis. Cavernous areas may be seen within the deeper dermis and infrequently a muscular lymphatic channel (often thought to be the feeding vessel) is present. Distinction from lymphangiomatosis is afforded primarily by the scientific extent of the lesion. Atypical vascular proliferation after radiotherapy medical options Lymphangiomatous lesions rarely happen in the area of radiotherapy. Lesions usually develop a number of months or years after radiotherapy for breast cancer. Other websites involved embody the gastrointestinal tract, lung, bone, liver, spleen, muscle and synovium. In rare instances, the illness impacts only a limb, with or without concomitant bone involvement. Lesions can, nevertheless, happen with a large anatomic distribution, not solely in the pores and skin but also rarely in mucosae (including oral cavity) and inside organs. In a small proportion of cases, the tumors are a quantity of and could additionally be segmental in distribution. Glomus cells could additionally be distributed as an attenuated monolayer or bilayer within the vessel wall. Moreover, with the combination of immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy, most tumors categorized as adult hemangiopericytoma on light microscopy present other strains of differentiation including synovial sarcoma, mesenchymal chondrosarcoma and solitary fibrous tumor. In current years, the concept of myopericytoma has been introduced to describe a spectrum of tumors composed of brief oval to spindle-shaped cells with a myoid appearance and a distinctive concentric perivascular development. Infantile hemangiopericytoma and childish myofibromatosis additionally represent part of the spectrum of tumors with true pericytic differentiation. Lesions are small (less than 2 cm in diameter), long-standing, usually asymptomatic and could also be single or (less frequently) multiple. Very rare malignant examples of myopericytoma have been described; these appear to have an aggressive scientific habits. Furthermore, concentric arrangement of tumor cells around vascular channels is much less distinguished than that seen in myopericytoma. Benign tumors of cartliage 1751 tumors of Bone And cArtIlAge-formIng tIssue the vast majority of tumors in the pores and skin that show ossification achieve this as a secondary degenerative or metaplastic phenomenon. Benign tumors of bone osteoma cutis medical options Osteoma cutis is a uncommon benign lesion of the dermis which may be seen at any age in both intercourse. Multiple miliary osteoma cutis might happen on the face of middle-aged sufferers with marked predilection for females. Osteoma cutis is related to albright hereditary osteodystrophy and that is discussed further within the chapter on issues of pigmentation. Immunohistochemical demonstration of osteocalcin may be helpful in tumors with poor osteoid formation. Up to 10% of cases recur domestically after excision, but malignant change has by no means been reported. Dystrophic or degenerative options � such as myxoid change, hemorrhage, calcification or ossification � are generally seen, particularly on the periphery of the tumor lobules. Some cases are composed of small, rounded, extra primitive chondroblasts, typically in a myxoid stroma. If the presence of a major lesion in bone has been fastidiously excluded, the prognosis of a benign chondroma is assured, regardless of the worrying options described above. Infrequently, there are foci of metaplastic bone formation, most frequently at the periphery of the lesion, and uncommon cases exhibit intracytoplasmic eosinophilic (rhabdoid) inclusions. Small hyperchromatic cells on the periphery merge with a central myxoid component. Often, the undifferentiated cells are organized round quite a few slit-like vessels in a hemangiopericytoma-like sample. It normally presents as an incidental histological discovering in biopsies carried out at websites of earlier trauma, particularly surgical procedure. Synovial metaplasia-like changes have additionally been described in oral mucoceles under the rubric papillary synovial metaplasia-like modifications or myxoglobulinosis. Multiple lesions are exceptional and in a single reported case there was transepidermal elimination of myxoid material. Involvement of other areas within the limbs, scrotum and suprapubic space has also been reported.
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Urticarial lesions show papillary dermal edema accompanied by a neutrophil and eosinophil-rich infiltrate. It first affects protein C, which has an extremely brief half-life, and until the anticoagulative impact comes into play with depressed ranges of coagulating elements, the patient is paradoxically at elevated risk of thrombosis. Congenital protein C deficiency is a crucial predisposing factor in some sufferers. Pathogenesis and histological options the heparin-induced thrombocytopenia syndrome outcomes from platelet activating hIt/pF4 antibodies induced in response to a platelet issue 4-heparin complex. In addition, the antibody reacts with surface endothelial cell platelet factor 4-inducing endothelial cell damage and thrombosis. Within the superficial dermis is a perivascular lymphohistiocytic infiltrate with variable numbers of eosinophils. Penicillamine scientific options penicillamine remedy is related to numerous antagonistic reactions including exanthematous eruptions, urticaria, lichenoid reactions, papulosquamous dermatoses, alopecia, hypertrichosis, nail changes, dermatomyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, pemphigus vulgaris, pemphigus foliaceus, pemphigus erythema, and bullous and mucosal pemphigoid. Cutaneous pigmentation which ends from parenteral remedy with gold salts is called chrysiasis (auriasis, chrysoderma, hautaurosis). In severe cases lesions could also be seen on the neck, entrance of chest, and backs of the forearms and hands. By electron microscopy, the gold appears as granular, particulate, and filamentous materials, generally displaying a starlike morphology inside phagolysosomes (aurosomes). Localized argyria has been documented as a result of silver earrings, orthodontic surgical procedure, acupuncture, silver polishing, and the appliance of topical silver sulfadiazine. Mercury granuloma follows penetrating pores and skin wounds as may outcome from a broken thermometer, attempted homicide or suicide. Silver granules are found in association with the vascular and adnexal basement membranes and adjacent to dermal elastic fibers. It presents in infants and younger kids following continual mercury exposure, for example in diaper powders, laxatives, paint, fluorescent light bulbs or different household sources. Mercury exanthem is characterised by subcorneal and/or intraepidermal pustules which can comprise acantholytic keratinocytes along with large numbers of neutrophils. Leukocytoclastic vasculitis could also be a feature in a major proportion of circumstances. It could additionally be related to a quantity of unwanted effects together with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, visual disturbances, cheilitis, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, poisonous epidermal necrolysis, pseudoporphyria, blistering, facial erythema, and mucocutaneous retinoidlike effects. Histological features all the cutaneous manifestations of voriconazole therapy show the identical histological options of their counterparts not induced by medication. Chemotherapeutic brokers 621 Barbiturates and coma blisters medical features Barbiturates may be associated with a extensive range of opposed drug reactions together with erythema multiforme, toxic epidermal necrolysis, hypersensitivity syndrome, and pseudolymphoma. Direct poisonous effect could also be of importance in some patients, since related blisters have sophisticated localized barbiturate extravasation. Cutaneous hyperpigmentation is a typical complication of chemotherapeutic brokers and sometimes affects the hair, nails, and mucosae in addition to the skin. Localized occlusion throughout remedy (as for example with adhesive bandages) could cause retention of thio-tepa-rich sweat and subsequent reversible hyperpigmentation confined to the occluded surfaces. Clinical manifestations embrace elevated erythema, hyperpigmentation, erosions, blistering, and necrosis on the website of radiation remedy. Newer chemotherapeutic brokers have emerged which selectively goal particular cellular pathways. It is particularly a characteristic of patients receiving long-term chemotherapy, high-dose chemotherapy, and multiagent chemotherapy. In addition to impaired maturation, the dermis appears disorganized and particular person keratinocytes are enlarged with pleomorphic nuclei containing conspicuous nucleoli. Intradermal perivascular irritation is sparse and contains mononuclear cells with inconspicuous eosinophils. Squamous metaplasia of the dermal sweat ducts could additionally be seen with methotrexate therapy. Some authors, nonetheless, have described basal cell pigmentation in the absence of pigmentary incontinence.
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The heterogeneous density of this lesion (hypodense anteriorly [double asterisk], hyperdense posteriorly [asterisk]) suggests an acute-on-chronic hemorrhage. The inner margins of subdurals (arrows) are concave, which outcomes in a crescent-shaped hematoma. Subdural hematomas may cross suture lines (note that this hematoma extends from the frontal to the parietal regions). Both these examples reveal effacement of the lateral ventricles and midline shift, that are indicators of elevated intracranial stress. Emergency Skull Trephination 1 2 Blind entry site: 2 cm superior and 2 cm anterior to the tragus (ipsilateral to the blown pupil) Shave, put together, and drape the entry site. With the trephine at a 90-degree angle to the skull, apply gentle stress with a clockwise-counterclockwise rotating motion. If no blood is encountered on a blind procedure accomplished on the same side as a blown pupil, repeat it on the alternative facet. The temporal area (between the ear and the orbit) must be shaved and ready with chlorhexidine or povidoneiodine through sterile technique. Expose the skull by elevating the periosteum (with a periosteal elevator if available). As progress is made with the hand drill, steadily scale back strain to keep away from inadvertent "plunging" into the brain parenchyma. The operator will know when penetration by way of both the outer and internal tables of the skull has been accomplished as quickly as resistance towards the drill is now not felt. After cranium penetration has been completed, take away the spherical piece of bone that has been cored out (with the diameter of the drill) and place it in saline. In many instances, epidural blood and clots beneath pressure will extrude from the site on full penetration of the skull. However, insertion of a suction catheter into the trephinated area may be essential for full evacuation of clotted material. If simply recognized, the bleeding artery (usually the middle meningeal artery) may be clamped. In a significant minority of sufferers, false localizing signs might lead the clinician to suspect a hematoma on the wrong facet. Thus, if no improvement is famous with trephination on the aspect of the suspected hematoma, the procedure could also be repeated on the opposite facet. However, in all circumstances the delay in definitive neurosurgical care attributable to makes an attempt at trephination must be weighed towards the possible benefits of the process. Moreover, trephination should ideally be performed after session with the accepting neurosurgeon. A slit valve could also be used within the far end of the distal tubing as a substitute of a more proximally positioned valve, as proven. An estimated 30,000 intracranial shunts are placed within the united States yearly. Intracranial shunts have a high rate of failure and characterize a disproportionately high variety of hospital readmissions. The essential elements of the shunt system include a proximal and a distal catheter, a valve, and a reservoir. The valve permits unidirectional move, incorporates a pumping chamber, and regulates the pressure at which move will occur across it. The proximal valve permits move from the ventricles to the reservoir, whereas the distal valve permits circulate from the reservoir to the distal catheter. Many various kinds of shunt systems, incorporating a wide range of designs, are available. Some have distinctive traits, corresponding to a double dome, whereas in others, valves are absent altogether. In most cases the reservoir allows for measurement of strain, testing for patency, fluid sampling, and injection of treatment or distinction material.
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