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More recently; however medicine grinder buy cheap prometrium 100 mg on line, scholars have started to examine the influence of other recruitment practices medicine joint pain purchase generic prometrium online. Only recently symptoms sleep apnea purchase prometrium online, partly due to the boom of company Web sites treatment of gout buy cheap prometrium 200 mg online, have scholars started to examine their influence on pre-hire outcomes. Before reviewing some of the literature on each of these recruitment topics (for a thorough discussion see, for example, Breaugh and Starke, 2000; Rynes and Cable, 2003; Saks, 2005), we clarify Behling et al. In the absence of other information about the organization, applicants interpret information they receive in the course of the recruitment process as "signals" about what it would be like to be employed by the organization (Turban, 2001). This assumption stems from propositions from signaling theory (Spence, 1973; Spence, 1974). Similarly, prospects and applicants will make inferences about the organization from various aspects of the hiring process if the information is not clearly provided by the organization. For example, if the computer used to test a candidate for a job broke down during testing, this may signal to the candidate that the organization does not invest money in information technology and result in decreasing attraction to the organization. The former involves the use of formal intermediaries such as placement offices, and recruitment advertisements, whereas the latter does not involve the use of formal intermediaries. The results generally indicate that applicants who are recruited through informal recruitment sources tend to stay in the job longer than applicants hired through formal sources. In the remainder of this section, we will briefly discuss some of the most important informational sources. Results regarding the effects of recruiter training, experience and functional area on applicant reactions have also been mixed (Breaugh and Starke, 2000). As mentioned above, one popular explanation for the effect of recruiter characteristics is signaling: recruiters would act as signals or symbols of broader organizational characteristics in addition to or instead of other information on the job and organization (Rynes, 1991). Hence, recruiter characteristics would essentially have an indirect effect on applicant attraction, through influencing perceptions of job and organizational attributes. Second, recruiter credibility might help explain the differential effects of recruiters on applicants. Recruiter credibility depends on two factors, expertise and trustworthiness (Ilgen, Fisher, and Taylor, 1979; Petty and Cacioppo, 1981). Recruiter expertise refers to the extent to which applicants perceive recruiters as providing information that has direct relevance to what it is like to work as an employee in an organization. Recruiter trustworthiness refers to the extent to which a recruiter provides information that accurately, or truthfully, describes what it would be like to be an employee of an organization (Cable and Turban, 2001). Personally relevant and trustworthy recruitment messages are more likely to be processed in a systematic (as opposed to heuristic) manner (Eagly and Chaiken, 1993), and will therefore result in different perceptions of the environment. As mentioned above, recruiter informativeness is generally positively related to applicant reactions. For example, spending (too) much time discussing the job might be interpreted as indicative of potential problems in the organization (Turban et al. It is also possible that some applicants are not able to cognitively process the amount of information recruiters are providing (informational overload), resulting in a negative attitude toward the organization (Barber, 1998). Finally, it is likely that with more information provided there is an increased chance of applicants withdrawing from the selection process as the recruitment message probably contains some elements throwing doubt on whether the job will be satisfying (Breaugh and Starke, 2000). The military typically makes use of recruiting centres to convey realistic information to potential applicants (Schreurs et al. On the other hand, a meta-analysis by Phillips (1998) found a weak relationship (average correlation of ͮ However, it is likely that this correlation indicates the absence of a relationship rather than the opposite (Rynes and Cable, 2003). Based on these findings, the authors suggested that negative information in recruitment messages "may not be as harmful to attraction as some have suggested" (p. The results of this study yielded mixed support for the adverse self-selection hypothesis. That is, high quality applicants placed more weight on negative information than lower quality applicants. However, they concluded "we need better means of assessing whether self-selection is adverse, both from the organizational and the individual perspective" (p. Advertisements are a popular, but expensive, means to attract applicants and have been the subject of a number of recruitment studies. These studies generally yield the same results as studies on the effects of job and organizational characteristics: applicants are more attracted to organizations that present a favorable image (in terms of pay and benefits, location, staffing policies, human resource systems, etc. Saks (2005) recently noted that recruitment advertising research is really no different than research on vacancy characteristics "expect that an advertisement is used as the method for describing the characteristics of the job and organization" (p.
Hosek medicine 6 year course generic prometrium 100mg without a prescription, Antel medications used to treat depression 200mg prometrium amex, and Peterson (1989) found that the prospect of getting more education medicine effects discount prometrium 200 mg amex. Similarly medications qd order 200mg prometrium with amex, Tannen (1987) found that by improving educational benefits for Army applicants meeting certain aptitude requirements, the quantity and quality of applicants increased dramatically. Research has shown that employees are often resistant to accept positions that require relocation, especially to dissimilar areas. Gatewood, Gowan, and Lautenschlager (1993) made a distinction between corporate image, or the image associated with the name of an organization, and recruitment image ͠the image associated with its recruitment message. They found that corporate, as well as recruitment, image was significantly correlated with job pursuit intentions, the latter more strongly than the former. Belt and Paolillo (1982) examined the influence of corporate image on the likelihood that prospective applicants would react positively to a restaurant advertisement. The results of their study showed that prospects were more likely to react to organizations "with high standing in the community" (p. Collins and Stevens (2002), using a withinsubjects design, found that early-recruitment practices. Lievens and Highhouse (2003), drawing from the instrumental-symbolic marketing literature, made a distinction between perceptions related to job and organizational characteristics and perceptions of organizational traits. The former describes the job/organization in terms of objective, concrete and instrumental attributes a job/an organization either has or does not have. These attributes primarily trigger interest among applicants because of their utility. The latter refers to symbolic attributes prospective applicants assign to a particular organization in the form of imagery and trait inferences. Other (non-military) studies also found that people ascribe personality trait inferences to organizations, and that these inferences are related to organizational attraction. Based on these meta-analytic results, we also propose a direct relationship from organizational image to job pursuit intention, as an indication of their prominent role within the job choice process. In summary, there is substantial empirical evidence that shows that the image of an organization plays a critical role in influencing the applicant decision-making process. As organizational image, reputation is multidimensional since a reputation can be simultaneously positive and negative (Ferris, Berkson, and Harris, 2002). Several studies have investigated the relation between organizational reputation and applicant attraction, with somewhat mixed results. Most other studies, however, have indicated that organizational reputation has a strong positive effect on attracting applicants. In another study (Turban and Cable, 2003), they found that organizations with better reputations attracted more applicants of higher quality. Similarly, Collins and Han (2004) found evidence that early recruitment practices, corporate advertising, and organization reputation each had direct positive effects on applicant pool and quality. The results from this study indicated that, regardless of actual parental attitudes toward the military, youth perceptions of parental attitudes were significantly related with stated enlistment propensity, which predicted actual enlistment. A possible explanation for this finding is the lack of compatibility between the measures of attitudes and intentions used (Ajzen and Fishbein, 2005). Similarly, in a qualitative study on applicant withdrawal in the Belgian military, Schreurs (2003) found that 10 percent of the applicants who self-selected out indicated that perceived lack of support from significant others was the primary motive for withdrawal. For example, some individuals preferred their current job to a military occupation because their parents had convinced them that this was the right thing to do. For most applicants this was not an issue, but withdrawals often mentioned that their parents were strongly opposed the possibility that their child would go to war. Yet, based on the available evidence it is unclear whether the effect of reputation on job pursuit intention is direct or indirect (through attitudes). Recruitment image was strongly related to the amount of information presented in the recruitment advertisement and to having worked for the company in the past. These results suggest that providing more information will result in more interest on the part of applicants. It should be noted; however, that most advertisements only contained positive information. Turban and his colleagues (Turban, 2001; Turban and Greening, 1997; Turban, Lau, Ngo, Chow, and Si, 2001) found support for the hypothesis that familiarity is positively related to organization attraction, with familiarity accounting for approximately 5 percent of the variance. In addition, the results showed an interaction effect between familiarity and instrumental/symbolic attributes, with the relationship between instrumental/symbolic attributes and applicant attraction being stronger when familiarity was high.
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Blepharospasm may be aggravated by reading symptoms 3 days after conception buy genuine prometrium on-line, watching television medicine ball chair generic 200mg prometrium overnight delivery, and exposure to wind or bright light symptoms zoloft purchase 200mg prometrium. Blepharospasm is usually idiopathic but may be associated with lesions (usually infarction) of the rostral brainstem medicine river animal hospital buy discount prometrium 100 mg online, diencephalon, and striatum; it has been occasionally reported with thalamic lesions. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying blepharospasm are not understood, but may reflect dopaminergic pathway disruption causing disinhibition of brainstem reflexes. Local injections of botulinum toxin into orbicularis oculi are the treatment of choice, the majority of patients deriving benefit and requesting further injection. Failure to respond to botulinum toxin may be due to concurrent eyelid apraxia or dopaminergic therapy with levodopa. Minor enlargement of the blind spot is difficult to identify clinically, formal perimetry is needed in this situation. Enlargement of the blind spot (peripapillary scotoma) is observed with raised intracranial pressure causing papilloedema: this may be helpful in differentiating papilloedema from other causes of disc swelling such as optic neuritis, in which a central scotoma is the most common field defect. Enlargement of the blind spot may also be a feature of peripapillary retinal disorders including big blind spot syndrome. In contrast, blink rate is normal in multiple system atrophy and dopa-responsive dystonia, and increased in schizophrenia and postencephalitic parkinsonism. These disparate observations are not easily reconciled with the suggestion that blinking might be a marker of central dopaminergic activity. In patients with impaired consciousness, the presence of involuntary blinking implies an intact pontine reticular formation; absence suggests structural or metabolic dysfunction of the reticular formation. Care should be taken to avoid generating air currents with the hand movement as this may stimulate the corneal reflex which may simulate the visuopalpebral reflex. It is probable that this reflex requires cortical processing: it is lost in persistent vegetative states. It has been reported that in the evaluation of sensory neuronopathy the finding of an abnormal blink reflex favours a non-paraneoplastic aetiology, since the blink reflex is normal in paraneoplastic sensory neuronopathies. These signs may help to distinguish tardive dyskinesia from chorea, although periodic protrusion of the tongue (flycatcher, trombone tongue) is common to both. The pouting quality of the mouth, unlike that seen with other types of bilateral (neurogenic) facial weakness, has been likened to the face of the tapir (Tapirus sp. Cross Reference Facial paresis Bovine Cough A bovine cough lacks the explosive character of a normal voluntary cough. It may result from injury to the distal part of the vagus nerve, particularly the recurrent laryngeal branches which innervate all the muscles of the larynx (with the exception of cricothyroid) with resultant vocal cord paresis. Because of its longer intrathoracic course, the left recurrent laryngeal nerve is more often involved. A bovine cough may be heard in patients with tumours of the upper lobes of the lung (Pancoast tumour) due to recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. Bovine cough may also result from any cause of bulbar weakness, such as motor neurone disease, Guillainarr顳yndrome, and bulbar myopathies. Cross References Bulbar palsy; Diplophonia; Signe de rideau Bradykinesia Bradykinesia is a slowness in the initiation and performance of voluntary movements in the absence of weakness and is one of the typical signs of parkinsonian syndromes, in which situation it is often accompanied by difficulty in the initiation of movement (akinesia, hypokinesia) and reduced amplitude of movement (hypometria) which may increase with rapid repetitive movements (fatigue). It may be overcome by reflexive movements or in moments of intense emotion (kinesis paradoxica). Bradykinesia in parkinsonian syndromes reflects dopamine depletion in the basal ganglia. It may be improved by levodopa and dopaminergic agonists, less so by anticholinergic agents. Cross References Abulia; Akinesia; Fatigue; Hypokinesia; Hypometria; Kinesis paradoxica; Parkinsonism; Psychomotor retardation Bradylalia Bradylalia is slowness of speech, typically seen in the frontalγubcortical types of cognitive impairment, with or without extrapyramidal features, or in depression. Cross References Palilalia; Tachylalia Bradyphrenia Bradyphrenia is a slowness of thought, typically seen in the frontalγubcortical types of cognitive impairment. Silent reading may also be impaired (deep dyslexia) as reflected by poor text comprehension; Writing: similarly affected. There is a mild and transient aphasia or anomia which may share some of the characteristics of aphemia/phonetic disintegration.
This means that land may be reported as "owned" even when this is not strictly the case legally treatment math definition cheap prometrium 200mg visa. Questions about asset ownership more generally typically refer to the household and are only sometimes followed by inquiries about individual ownership medicine organizer box buy 200 mg prometrium fast delivery, which is needed to conduct gender analysis treatment 2 buy discount prometrium on line. Questions about access and control may differ depending on the purpose of the survey treatment 32 purchase prometrium online from canada. The Demographic and Health Surveys, for example, ask men and women individually about ownership of land and housing. It is also important to recognize that joint ownership does not necessarily mean that women and men have equal management rights over the land or housing they own. Reported ownership is where a respondent reports that they own land or housing (usually posed at the household level). However, even when women self-report as joint owners of land parcels with their husband, often only his name is on the documentation. This document may be a formal land title or a customary certificate, certificate of sale, or inheritance documentation. Effective ownership is about decision-making power over how to use and dispose of property. Individuals may have partial ownership rights, such as user rights to cultivate, rent, and even bequeath land, but lack authority to sell the land. For example, 8 percent of women and 15 percent of men are self-reported landowners in Ghana, which falls to 1 percent and 2 percent, respectively, among those with a formal ownership document. Individuals can have control over land under customary law in a number of countries, including Malawi and Rwanda. Under customary law individuals may have rights of use, with differing degrees of freedom to lease out, mortgage, bequeath, or sell. The extent to which an individual perceives herself to be an owner may affect her choices about the land and decision-making more broadly. Increased urbanization means that owning housing in urban areas will become increasingly important for providing a place for women and their families to live as well as a potential source of income. Data on land ownership are scarce and often not comparable across countries but available data suggest that women are disadvantaged. Women who own land are more likely to own it jointly, whereas men are more likely to own land alone. Our analysis of Demographic and Health Survey data suggests that women are less likely to report owning land or housing than are men in most of the 13 countries covered. In several countries, the share of male landowners exceeds that of women by a large margin, but the reverse is never true; where women report owning more land than do men, as in Rwanda, the difference tends to be slight. In Burkina Faso more than twice as many men than women (65 percent and 31 percent, respectively) report owning housing. In some countries, very few women or men own property; in Nepal, roughly one-quarter of men and less than one-tenth of women report owning housing. In Africa, the size of the gender gap varies by country and type of land and by type of landholding. Women tend to report owning land jointly rather than owning it alone, with the exceptions of Honduras and Nepal (figure 5. In Armenia, Honduras, Indonesia, and Senegal, similar proportions of men and women report owning land jointly, but in the other countries, the share of women reporting joint ownership of land is much higher than that of men. Chapter 5 Control over land and housing 131 are complex and differ widely within and between countries. Social norms are important; contravening social norms by obtaining individual property rights may carry high social costs, making joint property rights more attractive. Social norms in India may mean that women with higher social status who are property owners prefer to say that they are not involved in agricultural decision-making. Marital status, participation in labor markets, and geographical location influence whether women are likely to report owning property. Women who work in the Republic of Congo, for example, are 24 percent more likely to report owning land than women who do not work. Evidence from India also suggests that land ownership is Social norms in India may mean that women with higher social status who are property owners prefer to say that they are not involved in agricultural decision-making.