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They favored tools blood pressure medication generic purchase 2.5mg amlodipine, methods blood pressure chart 50 year old male buy cheap amlodipine, and theoretical frameworks from anthropology arrhythmia symptoms and treatment purchase amlodipine, sociology pulse pressure points diagram order generic amlodipine from india, literature, history, gender and culture studies: sources capable of providing the complex socio-cultural contexts that were now considered critical in the assignment of meaning to consumption acts. Extensions to the branded world were soon revealed as legitimate and natural, and a thriving research tradition was spawned. Extended theoretical treatments of "cultural branding" are now beginning to appear (Holt, 2004; McCracken, 2005; Schroeder & Salzer-Mng, 2006) such that the tenets of an alternative branding paradigm can be put forth. At the heart of this emergent perspective on branding is the concept of co-creation. Co-creation has its roots in hermeneutic philosophy, which was applied in much early interpretivist research (Thompson, Pollio, & Locander, 1994). A foundational idea in hermeneutic philosophy is the hermeneutic circle, which, in the social science literature, concerns a general model for the process by which meaning is derived and understanding formed. Put differently, each person is the author of his/her own understandings, with the texts of these personal meanings written in culturally given terms (Gergen, 1990). Refinements to this basic framework were introduced by McCracken (1986) in his model for the movement of meanings into consumer goods (see Figure 31. Culture is represented as the original source and location of the general categories of meanings from which brands ultimately draw. These categories represent fundamental coordinates of meanings: the basic distinctions that a culture uses to divide up and make sense of the phenomenal world. The first was the firm, whose marketing departments and creative directors create and capture brand meanings through the 4Ps. Thus we obtain two brand authors within the cultural system of meaning co-creation: (1) the firm and (2) the broader cultural production systems that create, clarify, and sort these meanings over time. Subsequent research (Kozinets, 2001; Solomon, 1988a; Thompson & Haytko, 1997) reiterates the power and influence of these brand meaning makers. Reader response theory in the literature studies discipline emphasized a similar principle: the meanings derived from a given text depend upon the circumstances of the individual charged with making sense of that text (Mick & Buhl, 1992; Scott, 1994). A poignant example of the processes through which consumers adapted brand meanings to their individual life circumstances concerned product customization rituals through which people redefined consumption goods to make them uniquely their own (Schouten & McAlexander, 1995). First was the shared meaning created through marketing systems and cultural traditions; second was the more personalized meaning constructed by the individual. Elliott (1994) found that brands meant different things to different people, with shared meanings differing between genders and age groups; Holt (1998) revealed significant meaning distinctions across social capital (class) groups. The observation that localized interpretations of a brand varied greatly across social contexts and categories was also supported by Thompson and Haytko (1997). That consumers could interpret products differently, add localized meanings to them, and sometimes even redirect them from their original intentions derived from the postmodern realization that "products are only arbitrarily linked to their original functions and thus are infinitely open to diversion through the ordinary experiences of everyday life" (Cova, 1996, p. In this sense, the product and brand meaning space was presented as "contestable terrain that consumers rework(ed) in terms of their localized knowledge and value systems" (Thompson & Haytko, 1997, p. Culture provided meaning making resources for the consumer to use in definition and orientation, not a blueprint for the same (Holt, 2002). Th rough social discourse, consumers reconfigured sponsored advertising messages for brands (Ritson & Elliott, 1999). Consumers even twisted brand meanings, diverting them in unintended directions and resignifying them in surprising ways (Firat & Venkatesh, 1995; Holt, 2002; Kozinets & Handelman, 2004; Thompson & Haytko, 1997). Shove and Pantzar (2005) note that what looks from the outside like the diff usion of a particular innovation is actually a sequential process of creative re-invention on the part of thousands of ordinary people involved in the meaning-making activity across time. Wipperfurth (2005), an advocate for the emergent paradigm, echoes this same conception: consumer co-creation happens when individuals enhance the original brand idea by creating new meanings, uses, or rituals for the brand/product and then translate that message to the mainstream. Through consumer co-creation, the individual becomes not only the author of his/her unique understandings, but also, through extension, a partial author of the brand. Consumer co-creation figures prominently in contemporary marketing theory, where co-production has been offered as the cornerstone of a new dominant logic for marketing (Vargo & Lusch, 2004). Vargo and Lusch call for proactive customer involvement in the design, production, marketing, and consumption of products and services, and a marketing function dedicated to doing things in interaction with consumers to create and capture more value from these collaborative roles. While different in its application and intention, co-creation as co-production calls for the same reconceptualization of the consumer that those in the interpretivist tradition support: namely, from consumer as operand resource (whereby consumers are acted upon to create transactions via marketing resources) to the consumer as operant resource (wherein the consumer is an active participant in relational exchanges and marketing co-productions). Participation also stands as a cornerstone of postmodern marketing theory (Brown, 2004; Cova, 1996; Salzer-Mng & Stranneg泤, 2004). Within each of these theoretical paradigms, the concept of the participatory consumer rejects the notion of a static and constant brand in favor of one that is actively and dynamically renegotiated across both individuals and time. Ontologically, the emergent view accepts brands as dynamic, co-created entities, and brand meaning as neither inherent in the product nor constant across individuals, but rather derived from the "contexts" in which the brand "resides.
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Focused research on thresholds would substantially improve understanding of climate impacts arteria iliaca comun order amlodipine mastercard. For instance arteria differential discount amlodipine 10 mg mastercard, in densely-developed coastlines heart attack history cheap amlodipine 5mg on line, populations are especially vulnerable to tropical storms blood pressure for 12 year old purchase 10 mg amlodipine free shipping, storm surge and flooding, just as the very old and the very young residing in urban areas experience increases in cardiovascular and pulmonary morbidity and mortality caused by extreme heat coupled with degraded air quality. Native American peoples in Alaska and other low socio-economic communities because of their decreased economic capacity to prepare for and respond to the impacts of climate change. Just as there are differences across populations, there are important differences in vulnerability across geographic regions, such as the exposure to extreme events along the Gulf Coast and water supply issues in the southeast, the southwest and the Inter-Mountain West. With respect to health impacts from climate variability and change, specific subpopulations may experience heightened vulnerability for climate-related health effects associated with: 1. Biological sensitivity related to age (especially the very young and the very old), the presence of pre-existing chronic medical conditions (such as the sensitivity of people with chronic heart and pulmonary conditions to heat-related illness), developmental characteristics, acquired factors (such as immunity), those taking certain medications. Socioeconomic factors also play a critical role in determining vulnerability to environmentally-mediated factors. The distribution of climate-related effects will vary among those who live alone; those with limited rights (for instance, some in the immigrant communities); by economic strata; by housing type and according to other elements that either accentuate or limit vulnerability. Socioeconomic factors may increase the likelihood of exposure to harmful agents, interact with biological factors that mediate risk (such as nutritional status), and/or lead to differences in the ability to adapt or respond to exposures or to early phases of illness and injury. Given their location, the underlying vulnerability of some communities is inherently high just as their adaptive capacity is similarly limited. Populations in gently-sloping coastal areas are particularly vulnerable to sea level rise and settlements along floodplains of large rivers are particularly vulnerable due to projections of increased variability in precipitation. Projections of increased frequencies of drought combined put the increasing populations of desert southwest cities at risk. It is essential that public health interventions and preventions recognize populations that may experience interactive or synergistic effects of multiple risk factors for health problems, both related to climate change and to other global changes. Poor communities and households are already under stress from climate variability and climate-related extreme events such as heat waves, hurricanes, and tropical and riverine flooding. Since they tend to be concentrated in relatively high-risk areas, have limited access to services and other resources for coping, they can be especially vulnerable to climate change. These differential effects propagate concerns regarding social inequity and environmental justice and increased pressure for adaptive responses from local, state, and federal governments. While adaptation to climate change will come at a cost that may reduce available resources to cope with other societal burdens, potentials for adaptation through technological and institutional development and behavioral changes are considerable, especially where such developments meet other sustainable development needs. With scarce resources, communities should also choose adaptation options with cobenefits that help ameliorate other issues or where they can easily add climate concerns to existing response plans. The focus on all-hazards response within public health agencies can simply add climate impacts to its list of hazards for which to prepare. This will likely improve their response plans to events in the near term such as storms that happen in a variable climate, whether or not they increase in frequency or intensity with a changing climate. Planting trees and green roofs to reduce urban heat islands has the added benefit of creating a more aesthetically pleasing location that increasing well-being and by decreasing energy use in these buildings. Human well-being is an emerging concept, and in theory could encompass human health and settlements. The potential for utilizing concepts of human well-being to develop an integrating framework is not yet mature. Additional conceptual work and research will be needed, such as valuation methodologies (in the case of economic welfare), or developing metrics of well-being or quality of life (in the case of a place-based indicators, or similar, approach). As an integrating concept, human well-being can provide insight into the determinants of human happiness. An alternative integrating framework could revolve around settlements or the more expansive concept of communities (See Section 4. There is a growing awareness that the built environment can have a profound impact on our health and quality of life 1. A major goal of community design is to create more vibrant and livable communities, making sure that they address the needs of residents and improve their quality of life. More specifically, "Green communities", "Smart communities", "Smart growth" and "Sustainable development" are intended to offer alternatives to traditional settlement patterns, aiming to meet the goals of creating livable, desirable communities while minimizing the collective footprint of communities on natural resources, ecosystems and pollution.
Climate Climate in a narrow sense is usually defined as the "average weather" or more rigorously as the statistical description in terms of the mean and variability of relevant quantities over a period of time ranging from months to thousands or millions of years arteria umbilical percentil 90 buy cheap amlodipine 2.5mg on-line. These relevant quantities are most often surface variables such as temperature arrhythmia laying down buy discount amlodipine line, precipitation blood pressure chart high cheap 10mg amlodipine overnight delivery, and wind blood pressure low range safe amlodipine 5 mg. Climate in a wider sense is the state, including a statistical description, of the climate system. Climate change Climate change refers to any change in climate over time, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity. The further change in temperature after the composition of the atmosphere is head constant is referred to as the committed warming or warming commitment. Climate change commitment includes other future changes, for example in the hydrological cycle, in extreme weather events, and in sea-level rise. Climate model (hierarchy) A numerical representation of the climate system based on the physical, chemical, and biological properties of its components, their interactions and feedback processes, and accounting for all or some of its known properties. The climate system can be represented by models of varying complexity-that is, for any one component or combination of components a "hierarchy" of models can be identified, differing in such aspects as the number of spatial dimensions, the extent to which physical, chemical or biological processes are explicitly represented, or the level at which empirical parametrizations are involved. There is an evolution towards more complex models with active chemistry and biology. Climate models are applied, as a research tool, to study and simulate the climate, but also for operational purposes, including monthly, seasonal, and interannual climate predictions. Climate prediction A climate prediction or climate forecast is the result of an attempt to produce a most likely description or estimate of the actual evolution of the climate in the future. Climate projection A projection of the response of the climate system to emission or concentration scenarios of greenhouse gases and aerosols, or radiative forcing scenarios, often based upon simulations by climate models. Climate scenario A plausible and often simplified representation of the future climate, based on an internally consistent set of climatological relationships, that has been constructed for explicit use in investigating the potential consequences of anthropogenic climate change, often serving as input to impact models. Climate projections often serve as the raw material for constructing climate scenarios, but climate scenarios usually require additional information such as about the observed current climate. A "climate change scenario" is the difference between a climate scenario and the current climate. Climate system the climate system is the highly complex system consisting of five major components: the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, the cryosphere, the land surface and the biosphere, and the interactions between them. The climate system evolves in time under the influence of its own internal dynamics and because of external forcings such as volcanic eruptions, solar variations, and human-induced forcings such as the changing composition of the atmosphere and land-use change. Climate variability Climate variability refers to variations in the mean state and other statistics (such as standard deviations, the occurrence of extremes, etc. Variability may be due to natural internal processes within the climate system (internal variability), or to variations in natural or anthropogenic external forcing (external variability). Co-benefits the benefits of policies that are implemented for various reasons at the same time-including climate change mitigation- acknowledging that most policies designed to address greenhouse gas mitigation also have other, often at least equally important, rationales. The term co-impact is also used in a more generic sense to cover both the positive and negative sides of the benefits. Communicable Disease An infectious disease caused by transmission of an infective biological agent (virus, bacterium, protozoan, or multicellular macroparasite). Confidence In this Report, the level of confidence in a statement is expressed using a standard terminology defined in the Introduction. Coping range the variation in climatic stimuli that a system can absorb without producing significant impacts. Cost-effective A criterion that specifies that a technology or measure delivers a good or service at equal or lower cost than current practice, or the least-cost alternative for the achievement of a given target. The measure of number of years lived with the disability considers the duration of the disease, weighted by a measure of the severity of the disease. Dengue Fever 4 Definition from the glossary of the Millenium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005. Desertification Land degradation in arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities.
Guest and Brown (1939) tested recall for radio advertising based on a number of variable differences blood pressure chart athlete quality amlodipine 5 mg. In a controlled study employing both ads and music programming for an hour hypertension vitamins buy amlodipine in united states online, they found no differences for temporal position blood pressure is low buy cheap amlodipine 10mg on-line, whole versus part methods of presentation whats prehypertension mean order generic amlodipine canada, nor for repetition. They did find an inverse relationship between recall and amount of material, less material presented led to better recall. These strong results for early radio recall are intuitive given that each program was typically sponsored by only one product. Thus the repetition of the program with one sponsor likely led to a high level of rehearsal and retention. Fay and Middleton (1941) examined the gender of commercial announcers and found no differences in gender preference for announcers, but found that women tended to have a higher preference for announcers across both male and female products, then did males. The impact of color in advertising took center stage in the early 1930s along with an examination of positioning, type style, and amount of copy. In the latter half of the 1920s and early 1930s, several studies pertaining to color, size and position in print advertising appeared. These two studies compared color and black and white ads, using a measure of attention to the ad. He found no significant differences between color and black and white ads but did find that females tended to pay more attention to the ads than did males. Sumner (1932) studied the influence of color on legibility (blue print on a gray or white background scored highest however there were only 5 subjects. He found that "color ads brought 53% more returns per 100,000 than did black and white advertisements of similar size and character" (p. While still considering the effects of color, researchers also began to consider size and placement issues. In 1930, Cutler reported no recall differences for the same ad that appeared in magazines of different size. Lucas (1937) employed a more sophisticated study as a follow up to Ferguson and found contradictory results. Guilford and Ewart (1940) examined the difference in reaction time resulting from the potential distraction of print ads that appeared in color or black and white. Listening and responding to the noise of the timer motor which was about the same decibel as the projector of the ads, they found that both types of ads served as significant distractors, but did not differ in reaction time. McNamara (1941) voiced the criticisms regarding previous attention and memory studies in the lab (see subsection on methodology below for these criticisms), and reported a study employing eye movement photography. He found no differences in attention to the prime positions (inside front, back, etc. In 1933, Davis and Smith, building on the earlier work of Poffenberger and Barrows (1924), considered emotional response to different forms of typeface. Respondents were asked to match typefaces with advertised products as well as emotions, revealing some differences based on such typeface characteristics as size, condensation, boldness, use of italics, etc. In a similar study, Schiller (1935) replicated the earlier study of Poffenberger and Franken (1923) examining the effectiveness of certain types of typefaces as representing certain products. One popular question of advertising effectiveness that still evokes research today is the issue of relative effectiveness of negative versus positive message appeals. Investigation of this question can be traced back to the historical content analysis work of Harry Kitson (reported in Lucas & Benson, 1929a). Kitson based his opinion on the usage rate differences found in his content analysis favoring positive appeals. However, it is interesting to note that some practitioners of the day disagreed (Lucas & Benson, 1929b). Lucas and Benson undertook a program of research on this topic with a series of experiments. Reinforcing the practitioner opinion, across varied message appeals (negative versus positive) reflecting ads for several different product classes, these researchers found no differences in the amount of coupons returned based on the valance of appeal type (Lucas & Benson, 1929b), and no differences in recall among adults (Lucas & Benson, 1930a). However, they did find that among children, positive ads were recalled better than negative ads, especially among boys. They noted that as children age, differences between appeals and gender disappear.
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